Innate immunity is a mechanism which gives early and effective
response to invading microbial pathogens.
Toll Like Receptors (TLRs) are the first
identified and best characterized receptors among the signaling
PRRs. They initiate key inflammatory responses and also shape
adaptative immunity. They recognize a variety of PAMPs from
bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses, such as lipopolysaccharide
(LPS), flagellin, and CpG DNA. TLRs initiate shared and distinct
signaling pathways leading to the activation of various
transcription factors, such as NF-κB and AP-1, and the subsequent
production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.